How to Grow Bell Peppers

comments (18) August 5th, 2008

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If rainbow colors are your thing, plant some bell peppers. You can get a color burst of peppers from one variety. Islander is a chameleon, turning green, yellow, purple, orange, and red.
A two-level trellis supports pepper plants. Lines at the base brace main stems, while the upper zigzag helps bushy higher growth.
Elisa is an elongated, four-lobed red bell pepper with good disease resistance and continuous fruit set.
If rainbow colors are your thing, plant some bell peppers. You can get a color burst of peppers from one variety. Islander is a chameleon, turning green, yellow, purple, orange, and red.Click To Enlarge

If rainbow colors are your thing, plant some bell peppers. You can get a color burst of peppers from one variety. 'Islander' is a chameleon, turning green, yellow, purple, orange, and red.

Photo: Boyd Hagen

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For a long season, plot before you plant
We set out pepper plants in our Zone 7a garden in early May, and they grow until the first killing frost in late October or early November. They’re in the ground longer than any other annual in the garden. To keep a crop growing strong and weed-free that long requires good planning and attention to the crop’s special needs.

We try to pick a planting site where we have not grown tomatoes, eggplant, or potatoes for at least three years. These plants share many of the same soil and leaf diseases, and it’s best not to give them a chance to build up. Peppers grow best in well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. The heavier the soil, the more organic matter you need to add.

Test the soil for adequate minerals.
Any balanced garden soil grows fine peppers. Still, I highly recommend a soil test every few years to ensure adequate mineral nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), which helps roots develop, potassium (K), and calcium (Ca).

  Pepper practices to remember

• Pick an area of well-drained soil that can be freed up for the growing season, which lasts from spring to fall.
• Check the soil to ensure adequate phosphorus, potassium, and calcium for root and fruit development.
• To help prevent disease, separate transplants by 18 in. so they will have plenty of room for good air circulation as they grow.
• Pepper plants may need a nitrogen boost in mid- to late-July to keep bearing fruit to the finish line.
   
  More info...

Starting Seeds: Tips, Techniques, Equipment

Additional potassium and calcium might be needed to spur good fruit development. Potassium and calcium help produce nice thick pepper walls that not only taste better but also resist fruit rot. These nutrients should be added when turning under the remnants of the year’s garden. We always plant a cover crop, such as clover or wheat, which stabilizes our raised beds through the winter. When we turn the cover under in spring, it decomposes and provides most of the nitrogen the peppers need.

Seeds need feed and heat. Eight weeks before transplanting, we start our seeds in a well-drained potting mix and keep them moist and warm (70° to 80°F) to ensure good germination. We use a heating mat under the seedling flats. But any consistently warm place, above the refrigerator for instance, works. Plants need to be separated in the seed flat by at least 2 in. for best growth. After the first true leaves develop, we start fertilizing with a balanced liquid solution such as a fish emulsion and kelp mixture. Closely watch the cotyledons—the seed leaves that appear before the first true leaves. They should be vibrant and green. Yellow cotyledons, for example, indicate insufficient nitrogen. It’s best to gradually expose transplants to the outdoors for a week or two prior to setting them out.

Make the bed the right way
Three or four weeks before transplanting we turn under our cover crop so it has time to decompose and the soil has a chance to warm in direct sunlight.

Just before planting we again till shallowly to kill any germinated weeds and incorporate nitrogen. Peppers need only about 1 lb. of nitrogen per 500 sq. ft., and a good cover crop usually provides that.

Black fabric for bell peppers
  Bell peppers thrive with the aid of a black fabric ground cover, which suppresses weeds and warms the ground. Water won't puddle on top of it.
   
  A bell pepper trellis
  A two-level trellis supports pepper plants. Lines at the base brace main stems, while the upper zigzag helps bushy growth higher up on the plant.
 

Then we follow with a drip irrigation line down the middle of the bed, and cover the bed with black, woven landscape fabric, pinning the edges down securely to prevent the fabric from blowing up in high winds. We make 4-in. holes in the fabric, and the edges can be melted with a candle so they won’t unravel. We prefer landscape fabric over black plastic because we get all the benefits of plastic, such as smothering weeds and warming the soil. And because it’s permeable, water won’t puddle on top and become another catalyst for disease.

Good rows grow good plants.
We plant peppers in two rows per bed, with the rows 12 in. apart and the plants 18 in. apart in the row. This promotes good air flow among the plants for disease control and high production from a small area.

Between the beds, we leave a wide path mulched with straw. This also contributes to good air circulation and provides room for the plants to grow, and ours grow huge. It also eases access for picking. The mulch helps ripen the fruit evenly by reflecting light on the underside of the peppers.

Mulch also keeps the soil cooler and the humidity up a little. While peppers need heat to get going fast and early, they will not set fruit if it’s too hot. Night temperatures over 80°F and daytime temps over 95°F will cause flowers to drop or fail to produce viable pollen. Light-colored mulch in the paths may help overcome this by reflecting out some heat.

Take stock of temperatures for best results. On transplanting day, we hope for clouds, cool temperatures, and no wind. We give the plants a good watering with a fertilizer solution just before we set them out. The weather can’t be too cool, however. Peppers are recalcitrant when it comes to cold temperatures, both in the air and in the soil. When you transplant, you want the plants to keep growing vigorously. Pepper plants sulk in nighttime temperatures below 55°F and soil temperatures below 65°F.

Using a trowel, we set the young plants through the holes in the landscape fabric. Peppers, unlike their tomato cousins, won’t grow more roots from their stems if buried deeply. But they support themselves better if they are planted a bit deeper than in the seedling flat. In hot climates with sandy soils, you can plant them up to the first true leaves, thus putting their roots down into cooler, moister soil. The heavier the soil, the shallower they should be planted to reduce the risk of stem blight that develops in waterlogged ground.

Peppers may need a push across the finish line

We grew just the right size transplants, prepared the soil perfectly, and made sure they received 1-1⁄2 in. to 2 in. of water each week. And now, several weeks after transplanting, they are blooming like crazy.

Good crop rotation, use of disease-resistant varieties, raised beds, and good air circulation take care of 95% of our pest problems. That leaves the major antagonist, caterpillars—both the European corn borer and the corn earworm—which fly in as moths and lay eggs on the peppers. They become a problem in mid-July, after they’ve had their fill of everyone’s corn and about the time our peppers appear.

We spray reluctantly and only if damage goes beyond our tolerance. We use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacterium that attacks the worms’ digestive system. Most years, one treatment does the trick. Other than water, the peppers may need only a little nitrogen boost late in the season. Here in the humid South, with plentiful rain and a long season, peppers can begin to run out of gas in mid- to late-July.

Stem blight Corn earworm
Stem blight is a white, buttly fungus that attacks stems. If you don't plant peppers deeply in heavy soil that retains water, you should be able to avoid it.   Corn earworms are these very hungry caterpillars that start as eggs laid by moths. The caterpillars later tunnel into ripe peppers as well as corn.
     

When the leaves begin to lose that darker green color, we consider feeding them. Because of the landscape fabric mulch, this means a liquid form either sprayed on the leaves or slipped in through the drip irrigation lines under the landscape fabric.

This isn’t much nitrogen, about the amount you would use for seedlings or transplants, but it’s enough to keep the plants growing and fruiting. The more it rains, the more often you may need to feed them, since nitrogen easily leaches out of the soil. With too much nitrogen early on, though, peppers, like tomatoes, just make lots of plant and set no fruit.

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Comments (18)

fru writes: I want to open a garden of cucumber and the bell pepper. Pls , how can i have the seeds of the bell pepper? i'm a Cameroonian living in Bamenda of the North West Region.
Posted: 7:03 pm on November 2nd
fru writes: i love it

Posted: 6:49 pm on November 2nd
DaniloHawk writes: Really nice
Posted: 2:34 am on October 8th
Dallinlarsen555 writes: creative
Posted: 12:51 pm on October 6th
matthewtweedie writes: very beautiful
Posted: 12:08 am on September 30th
Blaizesampson writes: Colourful article
Posted: 3:23 am on July 30th
JardaeKeeley writes: Looks really tasty and sweet
Posted: 12:08 am on May 14th
Falimasofty writes: Wow i love this colorful pepper!!!
Posted: 2:33 am on May 12th
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
reesefallon writes:
Posted: 5:45 pm on May 21st
TeddyFlyfisher writes: Will Cayenne Pepper sprinkled around my pepper plants, prevent snails from eating the plants...? I live in Thailand and just planted six sweet pepper plants and discovered a snail has eaten one already...Can't use salt as that will destroy the soil...Any advice would be welcomed and thanks...
Posted: 7:45 pm on February 10th
kimms writes: Are the first peppers that form on a pepper plant supposed to be picked before a plant will set anymore peppers?
I've never grown peppers before but this year I decided to give it a shot with one plant. It has always been a healthy plant and is growing in a container. The problem is, it blossomed and set it's first two peppers [which have grown beautifully] but every blossom since has grown when it comes time to turn into a pepper, the stem turns yellow and I find it laying in the soil. The temperatures have been normal, not too hot or cold and moisture stress isn't an issue either. The plant is growing in a large pot with high-quality potting soil, so I doubt it's the soil. I've gone through all my gardening books and I can't find any reason that could be applied to this plant. I don't want to pick the first two peppers prematurely if I don't have to especially if they are going to be the only two that I am going to get from this plant.
Posted: 8:00 am on July 5th
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