How to Grow Beefsteak Tomatoes

comments (17) February 5th, 2009

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Burpee Early Pick is a medium-size beefsteak tomato with good flavor. It is best planted in early spring and can be harvested in 60 days. It makes a perfect BLT.
Early-season pruning of indeterminate tomatoes encourages earlier and larger fruit.
For tasty BLTs, you cant go wrong with Big Beef tomato.
Burpee Early Pick is a medium-size beefsteak tomato with good flavor. It is best planted in early spring and can be harvested in 60 days. It makes a perfect BLT.Click To Enlarge

'Burpee Early Pick' is a medium-size beefsteak tomato with good flavor. It is best planted in early spring and can be harvested in 60 days. It makes a perfect BLT.

Photo: Marc Vassallo

Succession crops provide five months of harvest
We do four separate plantings each year, which allows us to have BLTs from June until October. The first planting is a small one that I make in an unheated greenhouse to get a three- to four-week jump on the season. We set out the main planting the week after the last average killing frost, which is the last week of April for us. This crop is the best performer, benefitting from warm temperatures and minimal disease and insect pressure. It will produce fruit in July and early August. We then set out two smaller plantings, one around June 1 and the other before the summer solstice. While these plantings have a harder time growing than the main crop does, they will give us tomatoes well into fall.

Here in the humid mid-Atlantic, foliage diseases are ruthless, and no matter what we do (our philosophy doesn't embrace weekly sprays of industrial-duty fungicides), tomato plants eventually become defoliated (photos at left). Instead of lots of spraying, we plan on a crop of tomatoes producing fruit for about five weeks, then it's on to the next crop.

Space plants according to type
In the wild, tomatoes are perennial vines that just grow and grow. We call this an indeterminate habit, where the stem always ends with another shoot, and the fruit clusters are spaced fairly wide apart on the stem (usually every third leaf). Most of the newer hybrids have been bred to be shorter so that it is easier to trellis them. This shorter, more-compact growth habit is known as determinate growth. The stem ends with a fruit cluster and the other fruit clusters are spaced closer on the stem, generally between every leaf.

Rows of tomatoes should be at least 5 feet apart, or wider if space allows. In the row, space the plants 18 to 36 inches apart, using the wider measurement if you use cages. We grow our tomatoes up wire fences so we can fan them out and because almost all the varieties we grow are tall, indeterminate types. We secure the vines to the fence with a plastic tie dispensed from a special hand-held gun (see the photo below right). We prefer larger, indeterminate plants because they support more and larger fruit. The fruit also tends to taste better on larger plants because more photosynthesis makes more sugars, which affects the taste of the fruit. Also, since indeterminate plants have more leaves, it takes longer for diseases to completely defoliate the plant.

Max Tapener   Max Tapener
The plants in front of the author are determinate types, which have a compact growth habit. Those behind him are indeterminate types, which grow more aggressively.   Tomato vines can be attached to a trellis using a hand-held machine called a Max Tapener (made by Oesco, Inc). It dispenses plastic tape and staples it around the vine and the wire fence, all in one click.
There is a point early in the season when these indeterminate plants have too much plant material, and pruning may be necessary. About three weeks after transplanting, the first flower cluster appears, along with new shoots from each leaf and stem junction. Removing the new shoots at this point, when they are no larger than a pencil, will send a signal to the plant to put more resources into setting fruit. This will not yield any more fruit throughout the season, but it will give you fruit that's a little earlier and a little larger. We remove the shoots, or suckers as they are known in tobacco country, up to and including the large one below the first flower cluster. Once the plants have set the first fruit, they are better able to balance themselves between fruit set and plant growth.

Early-season pruning of indeterminate tomato plants

Label Pinch back Repot
Any shoots (also called suckers) that form in the leaf junctions below the first flower cluster should be pruned out to encourage the plant to set fruit. The author also removes any foliage that touches the ground, in an effort to prevent diseases from splashing up onto the plant. A well-pruned indeterminate tomato plant will produce earlier and larger fruit.

Most pest and disease problems are manageable
Good crop rotation, use of disease-resistant varieties, and good air circulation take care of 95 percent of our pest problems. The major antagonists are tomato fruitworms (which also go by the name corn earworm), and, to a lesser degree, beet armyworms and tobacco hornworms. Tomato fruitworms become a problem in early July, after they have had their fill of everyone's corn. We spray reluctantly, and only if damage goes beyond our tolerance. We use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacterium that attacks the worm's digestive system. Most years, one or maybe two treatments do the trick.

Common leaf diseases of tomatoes
Leaf spot

The author tries to combat leaf spot (above) and early blight (below) by using disease-resistant varieties and by spacing plants to encourage good air circulation. Photos: Jennifer Brown.
Early blight

Succession planting ensures a continuous harvest, even as earlier plantings succumb to bacterial wilt (above) and die.
Bacterial wilt

From here on, until we begin the BLT feast, we continue to tie the tomatoes up to the trellis and make sure they have the perfect amount of water. Drip or some type of soaker irrigation is ideal because it doesn't wet the foliage, and you can deliver regular amounts of water to the plants. Too little water can set your plants back and may lead to blossom-end rot, because the plants can't move enough calcium up into the fruit. Too much water, especially near harvest time, can literally explode the fruit right off the plants. Once the fruits start to turn color, excess water will cause the skin to split or crack, because it has stopped growing.

The end of May finds us sneaking away from our work, eagerly looking for the first ripe fruits. At our house, we eat tomatoes at almost every meal and in an endless number of ways. But many times a week I find myself at the cutting board with slices of bread, juicy red tomatoes, and mayonnaise, though which brand it is I will not divulge.

Sources for beefsteak tomatoes
W. Atlee Burpee & Co.
300 Park Avenue
Warminster, PA 18974
Johnny's Selected Seeds
955 Benton Avenue
Winslow, Maine 04901
Park Seed Company
1 Parkton Ave
Greenwood, SC 29647

Seed Savers Exchange
3094 North Winn Rd.
Decorah, IA 52101

Tomato Growers Supply
PO Box 60015
Fort Myers, FL 33906
Totally Tomatoes
334 West Stroud Street
Randolph, WI 53956

by Alex Hitt
April 2001
from issue #32

Photos, except where noted: Marc Vassallo

posted in: tomatoes

Comments (17)

royrice21 writes: great one..
Posted: 4:11 am on August 20th
Gigster 72 writes: Hello: I am growing Beef steaks here in Arizona. I find as they turn red I am getting a large brown area at the bottom of the tomatoe, how do I remedy this problem?
Posted: 6:49 pm on May 25th
Neoknot writes: I am growing Red Beefsteak and Better Boy tomatoes and I have a question...............
My plants are growing tall, but not producing a lot or even very big tomatoes. Am I doing something wrong?
And BTW..............IT'S HELLMAN'S! If you live in the South, that is a no-brainer!
Posted: 11:54 am on June 15th
ppopotame writes: as my beefsteaks are about 6 ft tall and growing every day, i was wondering whether or not i should stop their growth by snipping the tops off. can't get cages where i live, just spiral sticks about 5 ft tall. by reading your article, i realize that indeterminate growth is normal...but do i find taller sticks or do i snip? fruit and flowers all up and down. i filled the planting holes with chopt stinging nettle leaves in june, perhaps all that nitrogen is provoking all this vertical growth? i'm in southwest france. any ideas?
Posted: 3:35 pm on August 1st
khunkeith writes: @JaJa2527

I also live in Thailand and have had success growing Big Boy and beefsteak tomatoes. I start with seeds in peat moss (1500 THB a bag) and transplant to prepared earth when they are about 6-8" high. I have had several failures but, learning a little each time. Last year, I was giving away most of the fruit. I planted the seeds in November and transplanted to the garden in December. The plants are now (Jan 10) between 1-2' high and starting to flower. Out of 30 plants, 3 have died. Last year, I lost 1/2 the seedlings within 2 weeks of transplanting them. The year before, I lost them all.

The turning point was when I watched the movie "The Godfather" and the scene when Vito died in the tomato garden, there were sheets protecting them plants from the noon day sun. I rigged up the plastic sheets you see used in nurseries here and my plants only get morning sun now. The intense sun at noon and early afternoons seems to be to much for beefsteak tomatoes here in the land of smiles. I added an additional garden in the rear of the house this year and the plants seem to be doing great there. The shadow of the house covers the plants in the afternoon there as well.

Seeds don't store well though. they need to be kept away from the high humidity or they won't germinate. Keep them in an airtight mason jar with silicone beads.

my 4th crop in 2 years. 1st crop, 100% failure, 2nd, 50% failure, 3rd, the seeds did not even germinate. 4th seems to be doing very well.
Posted: 10:06 pm on January 9th
JaJa2527 writes: I live in Thailand and wish I could get could tomatoes here. But impossible. Wondering if you can grown your Big Beef tomato from a seed, keeping in mind the temperatures here are 27 to 35 all year round and rainy season from April to September.
Posted: 2:54 am on August 1st
growmokw writes: I live in key west florida and am trying to grow beefsteak tomatoes. They are not that big so far but i have noticed they leaves are looking as if they are drowsy are slightly wilted. I was wondering if anyone had any pointers for it.
Posted: 8:02 pm on April 10th
LeesBeesNJ writes: Ohhhh my..... I can just TASTE the tomatoes now. They are by far my favorite food to grow, and nothing is better than a juicy BLT with Hellmann's mayo. I'm switching from tomato cages to rings of wire fencing this year. I find that the store-bought cages blow over too easily during thunderstorms.

Tip for the suburbs: I mix lawn grass clippings into the soil before I plant my tomatoes. The decomposition gives the seedlings nutrients plus a little extra heat.
Posted: 10:32 am on February 29th
tatwood writes: Hellman's, hands down.

I've been growing only heirlooms, but have become discouraged by disease problems. This year I'll try hybrids, including Burpee Early Pick. Maybe I'll have more luck - last year was a disaster with all the rain, and then Hurricane Irene here in the northeast.
Posted: 8:45 am on February 29th
LivingMyth writes: Cain's Mayo is hand's down the best for BLT's and beyond. Try it!
Posted: 8:57 pm on November 23rd
DVincent writes: Very helpful website, planting my first ever garden, looking forward to homegrown tomatoes.
Posted: 5:30 pm on May 13th
Peregrine_Farmer writes: Hey Folks,
since I wrote this article, it has always bothered me that we had a typo on pruning. It should be that you leave the large sucker below the first fruit cluster and then take all the ones out below it. Glad you like the article.
Posted: 4:09 pm on May 4th
AnthonyD writes: Just be careful with the pruning, you can really cut down on how many fruits your plant will produce. If you only have a couple of tomato plants you may not want to prune. A good cage support can help a lot.
Posted: 4:41 pm on May 1st
phutch10 writes: Thanks for the information; I did not prune tomato plants last year. Now that I know about pruning tomato plants, I will do this.
Posted: 1:31 am on March 15th
Addassamari writes: I am a container gardener. I have had success with smaller varieties of tomatoes and will adopt these ideas for larger sized tomatoes.
Posted: 2:30 pm on December 26th
JadaE writes: Excellent info...I was definitely not pruning correctly! And it's gotta be Hellmann's mayo, right? :)
Posted: 4:19 pm on July 22nd
nettiepoo writes: i learned alot from this article and will try these tips
Posted: 1:40 pm on March 13th
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